Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary is located on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. It first opened it's doors in 1934, designed to be a prison to house the nation's most troublesome criminals, although it's origins as a military prison go back to 1861 and, as a fort, even further back to 1853. The United States Department of Justice purchased the buildings in 1933 and by August of 1934 it opened as a federal prison when the first 137 prisoners arrived from Leavenworth. Over the years the island would be home to some of the most infamous criminals in America including Al Capone, who served time here from 1934 to 1939, George "Machine Gun" Kelly 1934 to 1951, Arthur "Doc" Barker 1935 to his death during an escape attempt in 1939, Alvin Karpis, whose 26 years here, 1936 to 1962, was the longest for any inmate, Robert Stroud, "The Birdman," 1942 to 1959, mob boss "Bumpy" Johnson 1954 to 1958 and 1959 to 1963, and gangster Mickey Cohen 1961 to 1963. Due to the high cost of maintenance and the worsening condition of the buildings, the prison closed it's doors on March 31, 1963. The former prison is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, run by the National Park Service. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.